Headwater streams and wetlands abound on the American landscape, providing key linkages between stream networks and surrounding land. Although often unnamed, unrecorded, and underappreciated, small headwater streams and wetlands-including those that are dry for parts of the year-are an integral part of our nation’s river networks. Small wetlands and vernal pools, even those without visible surface connections, are joined to stream systems by groundwater, subsurface flows of water, and periodic surface flows. Current databases and maps do not adequately reflect the extent of headwater streams and associated wetlands. The resulting underestimate of the occurrence of such ecosystems hampers our ability to protect the key roles headwater systems play in maintaining quality of surface waters and diversity of life.
Essential ecosystem services provided by headwater systems include attenuating floods, maintaining water supplies, preventing siltation of downstream streams and rivers, maintaining water quality, and supporting biodiversity. These small ecosystems also provide a steady supply of food resources to downstream ecosystems by recycling organic matter. Small streams and wetlands provide a rich diversity of habitats that supports unique, diverse, and increasingly endangered plants and animals. Headwater systems, used by many animal species at different stages in their life history, provide shelter, food, and protection from predators, spawning sites and nursery areas, and travel corridors between terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
Today’s scientists understand the importance of small streams and wetlands even better than they did when Congress passed the Clean Water Act. If we are to continue to make progress toward clean water goals, we must continue to protect these small but crucial waters. The goal of protecting water quality, plant and animal habitat, navigable waterways, and other downstream resources is not achievable without careful protection of headwater stream systems.